Municipal Solid Waste Plants Convert Garbage To Electricity

Editor’s Note: EarthTechling is proud to repost this article courtesy of the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

Waste-to-energy plants burn municipal solid waste (MSW) to generate electricity or heat. At the plant, MSW is unloaded from collection trucks and shredded or processed to ease handling. The waste is fed into a combustion chamber to be burned. The heat released from burning the MSW is used to produce steam, which turns a turbine to generate electricity.

In 2011, there were 75 waste-to-energy plants operating in 20 states, with a total electric generating capacity of 2,238 megawatts. During the same year, waste-to-energy plants generated approximately 14 million megawatthours of electricity from MSW, or about 0.3% of total U.S. generation, which was roughly the same as geothermal electricity generation in the United States.
Map of 2011 electricity generating capacity from municipal solid waste by state, as explained in article text

Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Annual Electric Generator Report, Early Release 2011.

According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, waste-to-energy plants combusted about 29 million tons of MSW for energy recovery in the United States in 2010, which is about 12% of total domestic MSW. Approximately 34% of MSW was recycled or composted, and the remaining 54% of MSW was discarded in landfills.

The U.S. Energy Information Administration collects, analyzes, and disseminates independent and impartial energy information to promote sound policymaking, efficient markets, and public understanding of energy and its interaction with the economy and the environment.

1 Comment

  • Reply September 26, 2012


    More needs to be separated, then composted and energy-processed, as befits the substance. Unfortunately, too much raw material is being energy-processed which leads to air pollution problems, while lack of separation leads to excessive landfill requirements.
    Start at the source level, then all downstream facilities work much better.

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